energy storage system

Dry cell battery – one type of battery

ry cell battery - one type of battery
The emergence of dry cell batteries marked a significant milestone in the realm of portable energy storage, revolutionizing the landscape of electrical power utilization. This article delves into the genesis and evolution of dry cell batteries, exploring their structural composition, operational principles, and diverse applications.
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    As demand for industrial and commercial energy storage system continues to rise, portable energy storage is not far behind. In the history of energy storage technology development, the emergence of dry cell battery is also promoting the development of energy storage.

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    What is a dry cell battery?

    With the advent of the second industrial revolution, the need for practical power supplies in the electrical age has become increasingly urgent. Where there is a market, there will be technology. On the basis of wet batteries, dry CELL battery emerged. In 1887, a German chemist applied for a patent for a new type of battery.What is a dry cell battery

    This battery improved the wet zinc-manganese dioxide battery, using a mixture of ammonium chloride, plaster of paris and zinc chloride as a paste electrolyte, mixed with dioxide. Manganese, carbon rods, etc. are packaged together in a metal zinc cylinder, and a convenient, compact, and durable zinc-manganese dry cell battery was born. After that, zinc-manganese dry batteries quickly became popular all over the world and appeared in various small electrical equipment such as electric doorbells, bicycle lights, and flashlights. Dry cell battery has also become synonymous with zinc-manganese batteries.

    Introduction to specific types of dry batteries

    Alkaline zinc manganese dry battery
    Nowadays, more and more electrical appliances use alkaline zinc-manganese dry batteries, which are upgraded versions of ordinary dry batteries. They are also called alkaline manganese batteries or alkaline dry batteries. L is added to the IEC model system, such as LR6 is an alkaline cylindrical AA dry battery, and the word “ALKALINE” is usually marked on the alkaline battery label.

    So what is the difference between alkaline dry batteries and ordinary dry batteries? From a structural point of view, the electrolyte of alkaline dry batteries is no longer ammonium chloride and zinc chloride, but strongly alkaline potassium hydroxide (KOH), hence the name; the manganese dioxide in the positive electrode is not ordinary dioxide either. Manganese, but manganese dioxide produced by electrolysis; the negative electrode is no longer a zinc cylinder but zinc powder; the battery casing is changed from a zinc cylinder to a steel cylinder, so it is heavier and heavier than ordinary dry batteries of the same model.Introduction to specific types of dry batteries

    Structural changes will inevitably lead to performance changes. Alkaline dry cells have higher battery capacities, typically several thousand mAh. Of course, its voltage rating is still 1.5 volts. In addition, alkaline dry batteries are also superior in terms of discharge capacity. They can achieve continuous discharge of large currents, have long storage life, are not easy to leak, and are not easy to deform. Therefore, it is very suitable for electrical appliances that require high discharge capacity of batteries, such as digital cameras, video cameras, electric toys, etc.

    However, alkaline dry batteries are not suitable for all occasions. For example, quartz clocks have a very small working current, which is microampere level, one thousandth of a milliampere. If a high-current alkaline dry battery is used, it will affect the quartz clock service life.

    What are the differences between dry cell battery models?

    The dry batteries we commonly use are all cylindrical battery, but they vary in size, which means they have different models. This difference becomes even more obvious when replacing the battery. The TV remote control, wireless mouse and smart gas meter use AA batteries, the air conditioner remote control uses AA batteries, and the gas stove uses AA batteries. However, these models cannot be seen on the logo on the battery surface. It turns out that this model classification is China’s standard.

    In addition, international organizations and countries such as the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), the United States and Japan have a set of model standards for dry batteries. The AA we often see on AA batteries and the AAA we see on AA batteries are American models. In addition, there are usually the words C, P and S after the model number. C means large capacity, indicating that this battery has more power, and P means high power, indicating that this battery can release a large amount of electricity in a short period of time and has greater momentum. , S means standard or ordinary type, usually omitted without marking. For example, R6P means AA high-power battery.What are the differences between dry cell battery models

    No matter what the model is, the voltage of dry cell batteries is always 1.5 volts. Why is this? Chemistry knowledge tells us that the voltage of the battery depends on the potential difference between the positive and negative electrodes, and is also related to the electrolyte. Different models of dry batteries have the same structure. The positive electrode is manganese dioxide (MnO₂), the negative electrode is metallic zinc (Zn), and the electrolyte is ammonium chloride (NH₄Cl) and zinc chloride (ZnCl₂), so the voltage is the same. Of course, this voltage is the rated voltage, and the actual open circuit voltage is slightly higher than it. Moreover, the voltage of the battery continues to decrease when it is working and will not stabilize at 1.5 volts (V).

    In addition, when the battery fails, which is what we call out of power, the battery voltage does not drop to 0, usually around 0.9 volts, but the current is very small, usually only a dozen milliamps (mA), or even 0, indicating that At this time, the potential difference between the positive and negative electrodes still exists, but the internal resistance of the battery cannot be overcome to form a current. At this time, there is no way to provide power for the electrical appliances.

    Then the sizes of different types of batteries are obviously different. Although it has no impact on the voltage, it does have an impact on its power. Obviously, the larger the battery, the more battery materials it contains and the more power it can store. This is like comparing two hydropower stations. The height of the two dams is the same, but one dam is wider and the other is narrower. Of course, the wider dam will generate more power because its flow rate is larger. The physical quantity that measures the amount of power stored in a battery is battery capacity, which is used to indicate the amount of power that a battery can release under certain conditions. The unit is milliampere-hour (mA·h).

    The capacity of a general dry battery is several hundred mAh. For example, the capacity of a certain brand of AA dry battery is 250 mAh, which means that when it is discharged with a current of 1 mA, it can be used for a total of 250 hours, but the premise is that “use one Use, stop and stop”, that is, intermittent discharge, which is an important feature of dry batteries, such as flashlights and remote controls. If they are continuously discharged, they may not last as long.

    How to choose dry cell battery?

    Pay attention to the following points when purchasing dry cell  battery:

    1. Select the battery according to your needs. For example: when used in flashlights, cameras, MP4, electric toys and other appliances that require large current output, it is best to use alkaline zinc-manganese batteries (L). For remote controls, clocks and other appliances with general electricity requirements, just use ordinary zinc-manganese batteries (S, C, P).

    2. Pay attention to the performance-price ratio of the battery, and don’t just buy foreign brands. In fact, the performance-price ratio of many domestic famous-brand batteries is higher than similar foreign products.How to choose dry cell battery

    3. Pay attention to the storage period of the battery. The shelf life of ordinary zinc-manganese batteries is 2 years. New products should be selected when purchasing. The difference between alkaline zinc-manganese batteries and ordinary zinc-manganese batteries. In the eyes of ordinary people, batteries are divided into two types: alkaline and ordinary zinc-manganese batteries.

    In the past, people often felt that the service life of the battery was not as ideal as expected in daily use. This is the difference between alkaline zinc-manganese batteries and ordinary zinc-manganese batteries. In daily use, high-volume electrical appliances such as flashlights, cameras, MP4s, and electric toys can best display the characteristics of alkaline batteries and ordinary zinc-manganese batteries.

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