energy storage system

Application of lithium ion battery recycling in energy storage field

Application of lithium ion battery recycling in energy storage field
If lithium ion battery recycling are disposed of directly instead of metal recycling, it will cause heavy metal pollution in the soil, and the illegal discharge of a large number of batteries will bring great environmental pressure.
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    Currently, most of the retired power batteries are lithium iron phosphate batteries. In terms of battery performance, lithium iron phosphate is more stable in terms of step utilization. Many retired power batteries still retain about 80% of their capacity, and there is still room for use in other application scenarios.

    The remaining economic value they bring has given rise to the development of echelon utilization technology, that is, after relevant testing of retired batteries, they are applied In low-rate application scenarios such as grid energy storage and household energy, it not only extends the service life of power batteries, but also brings considerable economic and social benefits.


    1.Application scenarios of lithium ion battery recycling

    At present, lithium ion battery recycling is dominated by lithium iron phosphate batteries. In terms of lithium ion battery recycling performance, lithium iron phosphate’s performance in echelon utilization is more stable. Currently, nearly 90% of low-speed electric vehicles are equipped with lead-acid batteries with price advantages.

    If costs can be effectively controlled, when the price of step-by-step power batteries approaches that of lead-acid batteries, the advantages of step-by-step power batteries in terms of weight, mileage, and charge and discharge time will be more obvious. Here are some information about the maintenance of lead acid battery.

    Ladder utilization mostly involves recycling, screening and reusing lithium ion battery recycling in other fields.

    Typical applications are in the field of energy storage, such as wind and solar battery storage systems, peak shaving and valley filling, backup power supply, household power regulation, etc. Echelon utilization can alleviate recycling pressure, reduce environmental pollution, improve resource utilization, and improve economic benefits.

    Collect and dispose of used lithium batteries

    2. Application of lithium ion battery recycling in energy storage

    • Power generation side: Energy storage can be used to solve the intermittency and volatility problems of wind and solar power generation.

    As the main source of new energy, wind and solar power generation are intermittent and volatile, wind power and photovoltaic energy storage are different from traditional energy sources. Their output power is affected by environmental factors such as light intensity, temperature, and wind.

    As the proportion of wind power and photovoltaic power generation continues to increase, their The intermittent and random fluctuations of power generation will affect the safe and reliable operation of the power system and limit its large-scale application and grid connection:

    • Grid side: To ensure the stable operation of the power system, power auxiliary services are needed

    The power system has high stability requirements. The generation, distribution and use of electric energy are completed instantaneously, and the entire power system is always in a dynamic balance state.

    During steady-state operation, the active power generated by the generator in the power system is balanced with the active power consumed by the load, and the system frequency maintains the rated value. When there is a difference between the power supply power and the load power, the system frequency will change, which will cause instability in the power grid.

    Under the peak-to-valley electricity price system, energy storage can be used for peak-to-valley electricity price arbitrage. Users can use energy storage devices to store electricity during valley periods when electricity prices are low, and use stored electricity during peak periods of electricity consumption to reduce the use of high-priced grid electricity.

    Thereby reducing users’ power usage costs and achieving peak and valley power price arbitrage. There are high peak-to-valley price differences in electricity prices in many regions at home and abroad, and there are conditions for implementation of peak-to-valley electricity price arbitrage.

    Lithium-ion batteries are recyclable

    3. Problems faced by lithium ion battery recycling

    At the same time, as the power battery decays, the service life of lithium ion battery recycling will also be greatly reduced. Retired power batteries have high hidden costs from recycling and transportation to evaluation and testing. Some people in the industry believe that the above issues will become a confusion when choosing new batteries or reused batteries.

    • Batteries lack consistency

    The issue of battery consistency has always been an important challenge faced in the operation of lithium ion battery recycling echelon utilization projects. It is reported that the inconsistency problems displayed by power batteries in terms of capacity, internal resistance, voltage, etc. are closely related to the charging and discharging reaction mechanism of the battery itself.

    • Different technical routes

    In the future, electric vehicles and energy storage terminals will have different demands for batteries. Electric vehicles tend to have power batteries with high lithium battery energy density, while the energy storage terminal pays more attention to batteries with high cycle life.

    Therefore, the technology of power batteries and energy storage batteries Routes will also be separated. And there is still some confusion about whether there are safety hazards and uncertain factors such as whether the ternary power battery will be used in the energy storage end in the future and whether its stability can be guaranteed.

    • Value assessment is not uniform

    Currently, the price range of retired power batteries on the market is wide, and there is no unified standard in the industry for evaluating the remaining value of retired batteries.

    For the evaluation and valuation of a battery (or battery pack), its actual remaining capacity, health status, estimated number of remaining cycles, and full life cycle discharge data have a relatively direct impact on the market value of retired power batteries.

    Currently, car manufacturers, users, recycling agencies, energy storage power stations and other parties have not yet reached a consensus on how to assess the value of retired batteries.

    Improve lithium-ion battery recycling rates

    4. Key technological breakthroughs in lithium ion battery recycling

    • Aging and life model

    The safety of retired power batteries is one of the main reasons why they have been pushed to the forefront. The current battery aging research is more on new batteries, and there is less research on the aging of lithium ion battery recycling echelon-used batteries.

    The echelon-used batteries are due to their retirement. Due to the diversity of previous working states, the aging mechanism is more complex. An aging model that fully considers multiple influencing factors such as operating mode, operating environment, and battery structure will be helpful for battery status detection and monitoring, and accurately eliminate problems that are not suitable for echelon utilization.

    Battery, and ensure the safety of lithium ion battery recycling in operation. At the same time, it is necessary to deepen the research on capacity or life prediction models, accurately identify the appropriate echelon utilization scenarios, operating efficiency, and operating methods of retired power batteries, and maximize the use of battery resources under the premise of safety to find the battery aging inflection point for secondary retirement.

    • Screening and clustering technology

    At present, the mainstream screening and clustering technology uses machine learning methods, but there are often conflicts between accuracy and speed, and the model generalization ability is insufficient.

    In order to cater for the large number of retired batteries entering the industry, the screening methods studied in the future should not be too complex and need to be Construct a simple and practical learning model, develop a more robust algorithm, design based on actual application scenarios, automatically and efficiently allocate batteries to appropriate scenarios, and promote the large-scale development of the echelon utilization industry.

    • Capacity allocation model

    A reasonable capacity allocation model has an important impact on optimization research and application in actual projects. In order to achieve optimal allocation, the model usually needs to consider uncertain factors such as power generation, load demand, and the intermittency of new energy sources.

    Multiple factors are coupled with each other and require The study of capacity configuration gives a variable selection range of parameters, rather than exact values, for actual application needs.

    It also needs to deeply consider the impact of lithium ion battery recycling performance limitations and aging, while avoiding research that is only theoretical.

    To be effective, it is necessary to strengthen the combination of technical research results and demonstration projects to truly achieve industrial progress.

    Environmentally friendly utilization of used lithium batteries

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