energy storage system

Lithium ion bms – a vital role in energy storage

Lithium ion bms - a vital role in energy storage
Lithium ion BMS play a vital role in ensuring their safe and efficient operation. This article provides an in-depth understanding of lithium-ion BMS, including its functions, architecture, technical requirements, market trends, and future development directions.
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    From powering electric vehicles to supporting renewable energy, energy storage systems have become an essential part of modern life.

    One of the most critical components of an energy storage system is the lithium ion bms, which plays a vital role in ensuring its safe and efficient operation in battery energy storage system design.

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    What is lithium ion bms?

    BMS (Battery Management System, battery management system), BMS battery system, commonly known as battery nanny or battery steward, is a device that cooperates with monitoring the status of energy storage batteries.

    BMS and batteries together form a battery system. As far as Li-ion batteries are concerned, BMS plays a vital role in ensuring the safe operation of the battery system.

    In the energy storage system, the battery pack feeds status information to the lithium ion BMS. The BMS shares it with the energy management system EMS and the energy storage converter PCS.

    EMS sends control information to PCS and BMS according to optimization and scheduling decisions, so as to control single battery/battery pack to complete battery charging and discharging.

    Functions of lithium ion BMS

    BMS measures the basic parameters of the battery, including voltage, current, temperature, etc., to prevent overcharging and overdischarging of the battery and prolong the service life of the battery.Functions of lithium ion BMS

    BMS needs to calculate and analyze the SOC (battery remaining capacity) and SOH (battery state of health) of the battery, and report abnormal information in time.

    BMS plays the role of perception in the energy storage system, and its main function is to monitor the operating status of each battery in the battery energy storage unit to ensure the safe operation of the energy storage unit.

    Lithium ion BMS layered perception architecture

    Most BMS systems have a three-layer architecture, and the hardware is mainly divided into slave control unit, master control unit and master control unit.

    1) Bottom layer: slave control BMU, which is the management layer of single battery. Consisting of a battery monitoring chip and its auxiliary circuits, it is responsible for collecting various information about the single battery.Lithium ion BMS layered perception architecture

    It mainly calculates and analyzes the SOC (battery remaining capacity) and SOH (battery state of health) of the battery, so as to realize the active balance of the single battery, and upload the abnormal information of the single battery to the main control.

    2) Middle layer: main control BCU, which is the management layer of the battery pack. Collect various single battery information uploaded by BMU, and collect battery pack information. Calculate and analyze the SOC and SOH of the battery pack.

    3) Upper layer: master control, which is the battery cluster management layer. Responsible for the overall coordination within the system and the external information interaction with EMS and PCS, and control the operation process of the entire BMS system according to external requests.

    Technical requirements for lithium ion bms

    Energy storage BMS is more complex and demanding than the BMS of automotive power batteries.

    The level of management battery capacity varies greatly. The power supply managed by the energy storage BMS has reached the MWh level, and the number of series-parallel industrial storage batteries is extremely large.

    Energy storage BMS has stricter grid connection requirements. Energy storage EMS needs to be connected to the grid, and has higher requirements for harmonics and frequency.

    One end of the power battery BMS is connected to the battery, and the other end is connected to the control and electronic systems of the vehicle, so the technical requirements are relatively lower.

    Lithium ion BMS market

    At present, BMS manufacturers mainly include car factories, battery factories and professional BMS manufacturers.

    Unlike power battery BMS, which is mainly dominated by terminal car manufacturers, end users of energy storage batteries have no need to participate in BMS R&D and manufacturing;

    Energy storage BMS has not yet formed a leader. According to statistics, the market share of professional battery management system manufacturers is about 33%.Lithium ion BMS market

    The value of BMS to the safety, life and economy of the energy storage system is not fully recognized by customers, and the value and price are not equal.

    In addition, the BMS needs to have a corresponding relationship with the battery parameters, etc., and the module schemes, control strategies, protection parameters, communication protocols, and confluence schemes of each battery manufacturer are different.

    As a result, the on-site debugging workload is heavy, and there is an information island problem.

    Future development of lithium ion BMS

    ● From basic functions to advanced functions

    1) lithium ion bms is an important guarantee for the safety, long life and low cost of energy storage systems.

    The inconsistency of the single battery is likely to cause the barrel effect, resulting in a reduction in the actual charge and discharge depth and cycle life, resulting in direct economic losses;

    At the same time, it is easy to lead to the decline of the safety performance of the battery system, which directly affects the operation safety.

    2) At present, lithium ion bms functions have developed from basic functions such as monitoring, communication, and protection to advanced functions such as battery system safety diagnosis, long-life operation and maintenance, and system economic index diagnosis.

    From a technical point of view, active balancing technology will become the standard, and technologies such as big data and artificial intelligence will be applied to the battery status algorithm.

    In the future, the living space of low-end BMS suppliers will become smaller and smaller.

    Smart operation and maintenance, advanced functions, etc. are the core points of differentiated competition among manufacturers in the future.Future development of lithium ion BMS

    ● In-depth combination of big data management and cloud-edge collaboration

    BMS equipment is an important part of building a cloud-side combined energy storage system big data platform and deep mining and analysis functions.

    Edge: develop cloud-edge collaboration based on BMS, and give full play to the data aggregation capability of BMS. Realize the collection, analysis, status diagnosis and evaluation of real-time data of the battery system on the station-level equipment side, and realize data cleaning and pre-processing;

    Cloud: Based on more station-side data, the cloud realizes multi-dimensional spatio-temporal data mining, refining, and finishing. In this way, a more detailed and comprehensive assessment of battery operating status, safety status, and energy storage system reliability can be achieved.

    Dynamically optimize the BMS operation strategy and algorithm model and download it to the device side to achieve the best safe and economical operation and maintenance mode.

    Realize intelligent operation and maintenance, and provide data support for energy aggregation/distribution/transaction, and provide guarantee for the realization of the value of energy storage system.

    Summary

    To sum up, the lithium ion bms plays a vital role in ensuring the safe and efficient operation of the energy storage system.

    With the growing demand for renewable energy and electric vehicles, the importance of BMS technology cannot be underestimated.

    Although there are still some challenges to be resolved, such as lack of standardization and the need for more advanced capabilities, the future is promising with the development of technologies such as big data and artificial intelligence.

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